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Author: rusty

Author: rusty


Aluminium tanks – what every diver should know – an interview with Bill High President of PSI Inc

October 28, 1999

DM: How long has PSI been involved with cylinder testing and investigations?

BH: I formed PSI, Inc. (initially called Professional Scuba Inspectors) in 1982, following three years of research. I had completed four years as NAUI's president and was looking for another way to serve the diving community. Our first seminar was conducted in January 1983. We have trained over 10,000 inspectors for military, government, hydrostatic retesting, dive and fire industries in North America, and at numerous international locations. We have 65 instructors in ten countries conducting nearly 200 seminars each year.

What are the main reasons for an aluminium cylinder being condemned and withdrawn from service?

Aluminium cylinders have received a great deal of attention in the USA since an explosion in Riviera Beach, Florida in February 1998. This was widely discussed on the Internet. Before that event, the occasional explosion of either steel or aluminium cylinders was largely ignored by the dive industry. Internal and external corrosion are the main causes of steel cylinders failing inspection or test. Aluminium cylinders fail less often, but when they do the cause is either excessive corrosion, often in the thread area or beneath the boot, or from a crack discovered during a visual inspection.

What does your organisation consider to be the main cause of these problems?

Corrosion damage is usually the fault of the cylinder owner or the fill station. Water, especially salt water, causes metal to corrode. Water lies in contact with the cylinder for days beneath a boot. If air fill stations have poorly maintained filters and water separators, water will be pumped into the cylinder during fills. Sustained load cracking is a defect that appears in some cylinders made from 6351 alloy. In the USA, this alloy was used by Luxfer Gas Cylinders from 1971 through to 1987. All Walter Kidde scuba cylinders were also made from 6351.

Is it hydro testing or visual testing that shows if there is a problem with a cylinder?

Hydro testing does not appear to be the best means to detect a sustained load crack in at-risk cylinders. Most cracks in cylinders are found by visual inspectors. Considering both steel and aluminium, over 90% of the cylinders failed by a hydro retester are failed by visual inspection prior to a pressure test.

Do you have an idea of the percentage of cylinders which fail out of those tested?

If you mean hydrostatic tested cylinders which failed that pressure test, then the number is very small, since most cylinders are failed based upon damage observed by visual inspection. The following example from one of our PSI affiliate instructors who is also a federally licensed hydrostatic retester may help. His retest business is primarily limited to scuba cylinders. He tests about 2000 scuba cylinders each year - these cylinders are visually inspected annually and hydro tested with visual inspection every five years. Of those 2000, he condemns nearly 12% prior to the actual pressure test, due to damage observed that exceeds the allowable limits. Of those that pass the pre-test visual examination and are then pressure tested, he condemns only one or two aluminium cylinders and about ten steel cylinders. This example is consistent with enquiries we have made of other hydrostatic retesters on other occasions.

What can divers do to ensure their aluminium cylinders are safe?

The final responsibility for cylinder safety lies with the cylinder owner. They must realise that an 80 cubic foot capacity cylinder contains more than one million foot/lbs of potential energy, very likely equal to a hand grenade. Divers should clean their cylinders, dry them and store them away from excessive heat, always with some internal pressure. They can demand that the fill station have properly functioning filter/separator systems, fill the cylinder slowly, and not overfill it. Cylinders should be inspected frequently, both internally and externally, by a technician who actually knows what to look for in the way of damage. In North America we found that, regardless of how many years of experience an inspector may have handling cylinders, without formal training they cannot properly assess damage.

Do you have any recommendations for filling/test stations to ensure the safety of their staff and customers ?

I have written several articles and produced a booklet that details safe practices for fill station operations. There are many things fill stations can do. Unfortunately, many dive stores in North America fail to appreciate the power of compressed air. Since most cylinder explosions occur during the filling process, there needs to be a separation of the operator and the cylinder. Separation can be accomplished by either distance or a barrier. Only cylinders that have been inspected by a trained visual inspector and are within the retest period should be accepted for filling.

What staff training procedures are recommended in the USA to ensure that people testing and filling cylinders are competent?

In Canada and the USA there are federal requirements and licensing for hydrostatic retesters. The test procedures are established by law, and enforcement is administered by the Department of Transportation (DOT) or Transport Canada (TC). By law, the retester must take training every three years and be examined by federal enforcement personnel every five years to retain their license. Unfortunately, enforcement is incomplete and there are many hydro retesters who are inadequately trained and certify improperly evaluated cylinders. The retester must conduct a visual inspection as part of the hydro retest, but many don't know what that entails. The North American dive industry has established its own standard of an annual or more frequent visual inspection. This standard is rather well enforced by dive stores and other air fill stations. There is no legal mandate that the inspectors be trained. However, untrained inspectors have no legal defence if a cylinder they inspected fails explosively. Most dive industry entities - including PADI, NAUI, Luxfer, Catalina, Compair/Mako, most dive stores and several court jurisdictions - accept the PSI training protocol as the industry standard.

What is the number one thing that divers do to affect the structural strength of their steel or aluminium cylinders?

Cylinder owners are probably most guilty of not regularly removing and cleaning the cylinder beneath the boot; and, for salt water divers, not washing and drying the valve/cylinder interface.

What are your recommendations to divers for maintaining their cylinders?

Cylinder owners should insist that a trained visual inspector inspect both the interior and exterior of the cylinder at least annually. In North America we have to recommend that a visual inspector look into the cylinder after the hydro retest to ensure no water or other foreign material has been left inside. Store the cylinder in a dry, cool location with some pressure. Secure the cylinder during transport. Don't drop the cylinder or allow it to bang against hard objects. If corrosion is noted, clean it away, assess the damage against allowable limits and protect the area from future deterioration.

Does storing a full cylinder for long periods - several weeks or months - have a detrimental effect on its structural strength?

There are several considerations when making this decision. In a clean dry cylinder, clean dry air will store quite nicely for long periods, certainly a year or more. Poorly filtered air containing various hydrocarbons or other contaminants could deteriorate in quality over weeks or months. The cylinder itself is designed for a sustained pressure load during its entire life. If moisture is left in the cylinder, then the increased oxygen in a full cylinder will contribute to more rapid corrosion that in turn could weaken the cylinder dramatically over a matter of months.

More importantly, internal corrosion activity will reduce the oxygen content of the air. In the USA we have two examples of oxygen depletion in steel cylinders (corrosion is more rapid in steel). Following three months of storage, a corroded cylinder contained only 15% oxygen, a near-deadly deficiency. Analysis of a dead diver's air supply in a heavily corroded steel cylinder revealed a deadly 6% oxygen content. The University of Rhode Island's study of cylinder internal corrosion reveals that under equal conditions of moisture in cylinders, aluminium cylinders fare much better, so air stored in aluminium cylinders may retain its quality longer.

There is one additional consideration for aluminium cylinders. Because of its low tolerance for heat, and where there is potential for the aluminium cylinder to be involved in a fire, there is merit in storing the cylinder either full or nearly empty (about 20 psig). A 3000 psig aluminium cylinder containing less than about 1500 psig is at risk of exploding in a fire. The metal will lose its strength before the heat causes a rise in internal pressure sufficient to activate the pressure relief device (burst disc).

Do you have any comment on the effect of hydrotesting on the material of aluminium cylinders?

I am not an expert in metallurgy, so can say very little about material integrity. However, there are specialists who believe that the hydro test procedure may not adequately test aluminium cylinders. The manufacturers cycle many test cylinders to hydro test pressure thousands of times with no apparent damage. I have not heard any expert suggest that the hydro test causes damage to the cylinder.

In New Zealand and Australia, cylinders are currently tested every two years, and this may change to every year. In the USA, it is currently every five years and may change to every ten years! What are your thoughts on the wide difference in the period over which cylinders must be hydro-tested?

The hydro test alone is not a very good assessment of a cylinder's condition. Cylinders with obvious cracks and pinholes have passed hydro retest. US rules for retest were written more than 50 years ago, when cylinders were used very differently to how they are used by divers today. Experience in the USA shows that a five year interval seems to work for most gas industry cylinders. I can't speak about the logic used by the rulemakers in New Zealand and Australia. Whether the retest is one year, two years, or five years is irrelevant for scuba cylinders unless a technical visual inspection is part of the test. Remember, 90% of the cylinders failed by a retester fail the visual inspection, not the pressure test.

In a test conducted by the University of Rhode Island in 1971, a steel cylinder with a small amount of salt water inside was damaged in 100 days to a point of imminent explosion. If I were only given a choice of my cylinder being either hydro retested by one of our less diligent retesters or by a PSI trained visual inspector, I would take a frequent visual inspection and skip the hydro test. There is a proposal before DOT to eliminate hydro retest and replace it with an ultrasound examination at ten year intervals. The vast majority of gas industry users oppose this dramatic change. Ultrasound cannot test for heat damage, the impact of continual overpressurisation, or a number of other forms of damage. Because of the outcry from the dive industry and others, DOT has delayed its decision on this matter. Scuba cylinders cannot possibly remain in service for ten years without a formal examination. Should this rule pass, the frequency of cylinder explosions will increase rapidly.

Do you think aluminium cylinders should have a finite life, then be removed from service?

I have followed closely the issue of sustained load cracking of aluminium cylinders since 1985. As yet, I have not found a correlation between age and the formation of a crack. We do see more cracked cylinders now than we saw ten years ago. That probably means that we now have more people looking, and we have better tools such as the Visual Plus apparatus to conduct the assessment. Some of the cracked cylinders were made in the 1980s, while many thousands from the 1970s remain in service.

Since the cracks propagate slowly over several years, technical visual inspection of the suspect area at least annually should identify defective cylinders. Our records show less than ten aluminium scuba cylinders exploded in North America and several international locations, including Australia, that were most likely caused by sustained load cracking. Statistically, that is a very small number (several million were made), although tragic for those persons injured.

We know some of those cracks should have been found by the visual inspectors who last looked at the cylinder. Unfortunately they were not properly trained. PSI does not have information that would cause us to urge a condemnation of scuba cylinders over a certain age. We believe that no cylinder owner should imagine that his cylinder must last forever. It could last a lifetime, or as little as a few months. It all depends on its treatment while in service. Scuba cylinders are very well made and pass through a variety of rigorous tests both by the manufacturer and by third party examiners. Almost without exception, those that have exploded would have been removed from service by trained inspectors well before the failure, if the opportunity to inspect them had been there. This suggests that the opportunity for technical visual inspections should exist and be available to all cylinder owners. The cylinder owners then must be willing to have their cylinders condemned when damage beyond allowable limits is found.

Thanks, Bill, for your time in providing our readers with this invaluable information. You have brough up some important points that all divers and cylinder owners should be aware of.


Five-pound C02 cylinders incorrectly stamped

RIVERSIDE, Calif. - July 3, 1999 - Luxfer Gas Cylinders has announced that 198 of its Model C005 five-pound carbon dioxide (CO2) cylinders were incorrectly stamped 3000 psi instead of 1800 psi.

These cylinders are filled by weight, not pressure, since CO2 service does not use pressure rating for filling. If the cylinders are hydrotested at the incorrect stamping of 3,000 psi as the service pressure, they will fail the hydrotest at approximately 5,000 psi (cylinders are hydrotested at 5/3 of service pressure).

The incorrectly stamped cylinders were manufactured in February 1994 and shipped in the first or second quarter of that year. Serial numbers range from X8321 through X8518. Other identifying markings include the name "Luxfer" the cast code number "787" and the heat-treat lot marking "M98".

If you have one of these cylinders, do not attempt to fill or use it. Please call Luxfer Customer Service at 951-684-5110 to arrange for a free replacement.

Some of these cylinders have already been recovered, primarily from the northeastern United States, including Maine, Pennsylvania, New York and Virginia.

Luxfer has reported the stamping error to the U.S. Department of Transportation, which is expected to issue a recall notice in the near future.


Luxfer acquires new company in the USA

RIVERSIDE, Calif. 17 May 1999 – The acquisition of Tanks D’Art by Luxfer, the world’s leading manufacturer of high-pressure gas cylinders, was announced today by Riverside–based Dr. Henry Holroyd, Sr. Vice President of Research and Development at Luxfer Gas Cylinders, a Division of the Luxfer Group Limited, headquartered in Manchester, England.

Based in Simi Valley, California, Tanks D’Art, has developed the technology to efficiently screen print cylinders with customized labels and graphics, and has been marketing a diverse range of cosmetically enhanced products for several years.

Luxfer anticipates operating Tanks D’Art as a separate division in Simi Valley. In addition, Ms. Dodie Meister, Manager of Tanks D’Art and Director of Cylinder Graphics for Luxfer, will be heavily involved in Research and Development activities with Kolorfusion International Inc., Luxfer’s partner in Kolorlux, a joint company established to exploit Kolorfusion’s decoration technology. "We are extremely pleased with this acquisition as it provides us with the resources to develop cylinder customization options for the growing demand in several markets", according to Jim Ament, Sr. Vice President of Sales & Marketing.

Founded in 1898, Luxfer is a global company manufacturing more than 3 million high-pressure gas cylinders a year – aluminum and composite – in seven facilities on three continents. With more than 30 million cylinders manufactured to date, Luxfer Gas Cylinders meets the needs of major gas markets, including life support, medical, beverage, specialty industrial gases, and scuba. Luxfer Gas Cylinders’ operations in the United States are headquartered in Riverside with two manufacturing plants in Riverside, another factory in Graham, North Carolina, and the Hydrospin Division in Huntington Beach. Luxfer’s other manufacturing facilities are in Sydney, Australia, and Nottingham and Aldridge in England.

Enquiries to: Bob Bailey, 0161 911 8813


Acquisition of Hydrospin

RIVERSIDE, CA, 18th December, 1998 – The acquisition of Hydrospin, Inc. by Luxfer, the world’s leading manufacturer of high-pressure gas cylinders, was announced today by John Rhodes, Divisional Managing Director of Luxfer Gas Cylinders, a Division of the Luxfer Group Limited, headquartered in Manchester, England.

Based in Huntington Beach, California, Hydrospin, Inc. is the world’s leading independent supplier of drawn and spun aluminium cylinder liners used in the manufacture of ultra-lightweight, composite high-pressure gas cylinders for such diverse purposes as providing breathing air for fire-fighters and the inflation of aircraft emergency slides.

"We have a relationship with Luxfer going back to the late 1970s, said Jens Jensen, currently Hydrospin’s CEO and majority shareholder. "The new association with Luxfer will solidify the company’s position as a liner manufacturer, as well as assist in continuing growth in other metal formed products".

Luxfer anticipates no layoffs or other significant employment changes at Hydrospin’s Huntington Beach plant as a result of the acquisition. The day-to-day management of the company effectively will not change, with Carl Lorentzen remaining as General Manager and Peter Lindgren continuing to be responsible for engineering and sales development. After the acquisition, Jens Jensen has agreed to continue his association with the company, acting as consultant to help facilitate the ownership changeover.

"The acquisition of Hydrospin is a very good move for Luxfer," said Rhodes. "Our position as the manufacturer of high-pressure gas cylinders in the world, combined with our global sales coverage, will provide Hydrospin with the resources to expand its operations and consolidate its commanding role as a liner manufacturer. Bringing Hydrospin’s technology and operations under the Luxfer umbrella, coupled with the recent opening of our new state-of-the-art composite cylinder plant in Riverside, will put us in an excellent position to better satisfy the requirements of our customers in the growing global marketplace for lightweight composite cylinders."

Founded in 1898, Luxfer is a global company manufacturing more than 3 million high-pressure gas cylinders a year – aluminium and composite – in six facilities on three continents. With more than 30 million cylinders manufactured to date, Luxfer Gas Cylinders meets the needs of major gas markets, including life support, medical, beverage, speciality industrial gases and scuba.

The headquarters of Luxfer’s Gas Cylinder Division is situated in Riverside, California with two manufacturing plants in Riverside and a third factory in Graham, North Carolina. Luxfer’s other cylinder manufacturing facilities are in Nottingham and Aldridge in the UK, and Sydney, Australia.

Enquiries to: Bob Bailey - 0161 911 8813


Luxfer Gas Cylinders year 2000 disclosure notice

December 3, 1998 Riverside, California, USA

In 1994 Luxfer Gas Cylinders in the United States began an audit and assessment of its systems to determine any necessary changes to computer systems and software to ensure that Luxfer is able to function effectively and maintain its standard of service to customers through and beyond the year 2000.

Since that time, several internal systems have been modernized and replaced. As of June 1997, all of Luxfer Gas Cylinders critical software systems were determined to be year 2000 compliant. This includes both systems written in-house and systems purchased from outside vendors. Additionally, Luxfer has implemented a new manufacturing system which is also fully year 2000 compliant. All specifications for new systems, equipment and software require them to work through the year 2000.

It has been Luxfer's intention to minimize year 2000 risks as far as it is possible or reasonable so to do. At this stage, it is not anticipated that there will be disruption of Luxfer's ability to function or provide service to its customers before, during or after the year 2000 due to the 'millennium bug.' Furthermore, Luxfer does not expect to incur additional cost of doing business due to year 2000 software or hardware issues.

However, although Luxfer has taken serious and prudent corrective actions to be prepared to do business in the next century, no business can categorically state that there will be no disruption because of year 2000 issues. This is because of the uncertain nature of the potential effects, for example, of linkage to third party software that may have a year 2000 problem. Nevertheless, Luxfer is taking all necessary steps to ensure as far as possible that its suppliers, vendors and other providers are year 2000 compliant.

Please note: the information provided to you, either in writing or contained on Luxfer's internet web site pages, regarding products and services offered by Luxfer (or with respect to Luxfer's year 2000 processing capabilities or readiness) is considered a year 2000 disclosure in conformance with the Year 2000 Information and Readiness Disclosure Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-271, 112 Stat. 2386) enacted October 19, 1998. This designation applies to information delivered directly to you, through or derived from Luxfer's internet web site pages, and other materials.

If you have any questions about Luxfer's year 2000 compliance program then please contact our Information Technology Manager, John P. Dibble, at (951) 341-2298.


Poor visual inspections are the problem not old scuba cylinders

RIVERSIDE, CA, MARCH 4, 1998 - In response to the flood of calls from concerned scuba tank owners following the rupture of another manufacturer's scuba cylinder in a South Florida dive store, Luxfer Gas Cylinders, the world's leading producer of scuba cylinders, issued the following statement today:

"Many owners of scuba tanks would like information regarding the safety of their scuba tanks. As the "Safety First" company, we want to assure all of you that all our high-pressure gas cylinders are safe for use whatever the date of manufacture. But if you are concerned, we strongly recommend you contact a dive store that has a professionally trained visual inspector and have your cylinder visually inspected. In the highly unlikely event there is any problem, even minor, with your cylinder, a competent visual inspection will find it. We recommend scuba technicians who have been certified by PSI, Inc. to carry out visual inspections.

We hope we have addressed your concerns. If you need additional information on tank care, please visit our website at where you will find our new guide to cylinder maintenance, called AIRCARE, under the SCUBA Products Care and Maintenance section."

Bill High, founder and director of Professional Scuba Inspectors, Inc. and recognized as the leading industry expert on the visual inspection of scuba cylinders, commented today on the suggested guidelines for the inspection of scuba cylinders proposed by the Greater Fort Lauderdale Dive Association.

"The solutions proposed by the Greater Fort Lauderdale Dive Association do not actually address the problem," said Bill High. "The real problem is untrained visual inspectors who keep damaged cylinders in service. The solution is to require, as the U.S. law does (49CFR172.700), that everyone who handles a cylinder knows what he/she is doing.

"There is nothing inherently wrong with 10, 20 or even 30 year old cylinders," High added. "Certainly, some cylinders should be technically inspected more often than once a year. But, it is not old cylinders that is the problem, it's damaged ones. Florida has had more cylinder explosions than any other part of the world, both steel and aluminum. Why? Because many scuba technicians won't take training. There are also problems created by the warm environment and overfilling is a problem as well. Even the bath tubs used for that unnecessary water bath fill are a concern," High said.

High further suggested to members of the Greater Fort Lauderdale Dive Association that they participate in a PSI-led training session on professional visual inspections, which he offered to conduct personally, and assist in making a statewide set of fill station operator safety standards.

Luxfer Gas Cylinders manufactures more than 2.5 million high-pressure aluminum and composite gas cylinders annually for most major gas markets throughout the world. With plants in Australia and Europe, Luxfer has its U.S. corporate headquarters in Riverside, CA and manufacturing plants in Graham, NC and Riverside, CA.

Note to Editors: Bill High is available for interview. If you wish to speak to him you can contact him at 425/486-2252 or by e-mail at PSI also has a website.


Luxfer expands state-of-the-art manufacturing facility

RIVERSIDE, CA, January 12, 1998 -- After the completion of the most successful year in its history, Luxfer Gas Cylinders announced the move of its Composite Cylinder Division to an expanded, state-of-the-art production facility in Riverside, CA.

The 78,000 square foot plant incorporates new, in-line machinery and equipment which will greatly increase Luxfer's capacity for manufacturing composite gas cylinders. Luxfer is the world's largest manufacturer of high-pressure aluminum and composite cylinders for most major gas markets.

"Our new factory for the mass production of very lightweight cylinders is world-class and sets a new standard for operations of its kind," said John Rhodes, president, Luxfer, Inc. "Our new, in-line process flow will speed up manufacturing, better utilize equipment, increase productivity and reduce lost-time."

This new facility includes the most modern machinery and equipment available including new winding machines, tension creels, curing ovens, production hydrotest and cylinder finishing equipment.

"This additional capacity and improvements will enable us to serve our customers well into the future, providing high-quality composite cylinders on-time and at competitive prices," explained Ed Morris, general manager, Luxfer Composite Division. "Much of the new plant layout is a direct result of input from our employees who are actively involved in our efforts to continuously improve our manufacturing capabilities."

The move by the Composite Cylinder Division to Riverside coincides with and places it close to Luxfer's new U.S. corporate headquarters location. The corporate headquarters offices recently moved out of the original Riverside plant, which manufactures all-aluminum alloy, high-pressure gas cylinders, and into nearby, expanded space. These moves strategically place all three facilities adjacent to each other maximizing administrative and manufacturing efficiencies.

Established in 1898, Luxfer manufactures nearly three million high-pressure aluminum and composite gas cylinders annually for most major gas markets in more than 50 countries, including life support (fire fighting) and HAZMAT (rescue operations), medical, CO2 beverage and fire extinguishers, specialty industrial gases and scuba. With plants in Australia and Europe, Luxfer has its U.S. corporate headquarters in Riverside, CA and manufacturing facilities in Graham, NC and Riverside.


Acquisition of Australian cylinder manufacturer

8 January 1997: British Aluminium today announced the successful acquisition of CIG Gas Cylinders. CIG Gas Cylinders is a manufacturer of high pressure, aluminium, gas cylinders for fire extinguishers, breathing apparatus, diving equipment, medical and industrial gases and beverage dispensing. The company operates from a single manufacturing facility located in Kings Park, Sydney.

The company was formerly a division of BOC Gases Australia Limited.

CIG Gas Cylinders will in future trade as Luxfer Gas Cylinders, a division of British Aluminium Australia Pty Ltd. Luxfer is the leading world-wide producer of high pressure gas cylinders, operating from two manufacturing facilities in the UK and three plants in the USA. CIG has had a strong relationship with Luxfer for twenty years, and has operated under a sales & marketing and technology licensing agreement with Luxfer.

Ian McKinnon, Chief Executive of British Aluminium commented: "Luxfer is an important core business for British Aluminium, with strong market positions in Europe and North America. This acquisition gives us an important manufacturing presence in the fast growing Asia-Pacific Region and strengthens our position as the World's leading producer of high pressure gas cylinders. It also confirms our commitment to develop British Aluminium into a major international engineering business supplying high added value materials and components to world markets."

Brian Purves, Finance Director of British Aluminium commented: "CIG Gas Cylinders is already a successful business with sales growing from 10,000 cylinders in 1975 to 250,000 last year. It has a reputation for quality products and innovative working practices. With its presence in the key markets of Japan, Korea and Australia, it is a valuable addition to our portfolio."

For enquiries, please contact: Bob Bailey, Director of Corporate Development, British Aluminium Limited at The Victoria, Harbour City, Salford Quays, Manchester, M5 2SP, UK. Telephone: 0161 911 8813. Fax: 0161 911 8894

Notes for Editors

1.CIG Gas Cylinders is British Aluminium's first acquisition.

2.British Aluminium was formed in February 1996 when a Management Buy-in acquired the downstream operations of Alcan in the UK. It has a turnover of about £530 mio and employs 4000 people, with manufacturing operations in the UK and USA.

3.British Aluminium is a group of engineering companies that supply materials and semi-finished components to a wide range of end-use markets. In 1996 90% of its earnings came from internationally diverse, high added value businesses with strong market positions. These include the processing of zirconium and magnesium, the manufacture of specialist aluminium alloys and components for the aerospace, defence and general engineering markets, as well as the manufacture of high pressure gas cylinders.

4.Luxfer Gas Cylinders is the world's leading manufacturer of high pressure gas cylinders with operations in the UK and the USA. The UK operations are at Colwick, near Nottingham and Aldridge in Staffordshire; The USA operations are at Riverside and Placentia in California and Graham, North Carolina. Luxfer currently produces 3 million cylinders pa.

5.CIG Gas Cylinders formerly operated as a division of BOC Gases Australia. It has been a licensee of Luxfer technology for twenty years. It had a turnover of A$40 million in 1996, producing over 250,000 cylinders. Two-thirds of its output is exported to the Asia Pacific region, with Japan being its largest export market. It employs 110 people at its manufacturing plant at Kings Park, Sydney, Australia.

6.The company will operate under the name of Luxfer Gas Cylinders, Australia.

7.British Aluminium's Head Office is at the Victoria Building, Salford Quays in Manchester.